Fig. 1

AGuIX uptake studies. a Schematic representation of the activation induced by the external X-ray irradiation on the AGuIX. b TEM images (3000×) depict the active endocytosis uptake of AGuIX into the tumor cells. Bar 5 µm. c Magnified TEM image (25000×) shows AGuIX nanoparticles captured by endosomal vesicles (black arrow) and carried into the cytoplasm. Bar 1 µm. d Hydrodynamic measurement of the AGuIX size. e Panc1 cells were incubated for different time points with 0.5 mM of AGuIX. The concentration in pg/cell measured by MRI and crosschecked by ICP-MS. The MRI measurement is determined with a calibration curve allowing the translation between the concentration in AGuIX and the relaxivity time. For both methods of measurement, the uptake plateaus after 30 min

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