(A) (a) SPR intensity profiles for influenza A viral particles captured on PEG and anti-influenza A antibody-functionalized sensor surfaces. (b) Relative binding probabilities of influenza A on PEG and anti-influenza A antibody-functionalized surfaces, and binding of a different virus HCMV on anti-influenza antibody spots as a control. Adapted from . (B) A SPRi micrograph of (a) IAV or (b) HIV-VLP captured functionalized surfaces. Viruses appear as bright spots on grey background. Intensity change with the binding event of IAV and HIV-VLPs is seen in (c) and (d) as signal increase, respectively. Adapted from . (C) (a) Schematic representation of the planar waveguide chip and detection of fluorescently labeled vesicles in (b) fluorescence and (c) scattering modes. Adapted from  (Reprinted with permission from , Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society).