Optical gain to enhance the sensing performance of optical resonators. (A) Typical transmission spectra of an active resonator (resonator doped with optical gain medium) when the excitation pump for the gain medium is off (left: a broad resonance) and on (right: two distinct narrow resonance ). (B) Detection of nanoparticles using mode-splitting in a microcavity laser. A beatnote is generated by photomixing the split lasing modes in a photoreceiver. The changes in beat frequency with time reflect the scatterer induced frequency splitting in the microlaser which indicates a scatterer entering the laser mode volume. If a multimode microlaser is used, each lasing mode undergoes splitting with the splitting amount depending on the overlap of the scatterer with the volume of the lasing mode. Using a multimode laser reduces the possibility of missing a binding scatterer since one splitting signal could capture a binding event that might have been missed by the other one (lower right panel) adapted from .