Figure 3

Schematic illustration of 2D structured DNA probes. Electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) sensor: (A) stem-loop structured DNA probe with ferrocene (Fe) as signal molecule (adapted from Fan et al.79); (B) stem-loop structured DNA probe with enzyme-based signal amplification (adapted from Liu et al.82). Fluorescent DNA (F-DNA) sensor: (C) stem-loop structured DNA probe with fluorescent molecule for signal generation (adapted from Du et al.84); (D) Aptamer nano-flares with fluorescent reporters (adapted from Mirkin et al.87).

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