Uncontrolled binding of the IgG onto the surface of the solid SERS nanotags (A). Ability of Stabilizers (red) to bind with NPs covalently onto the surface of nanomaterial (B). Immunohistochemistry staining of prostate tissue using Au@Ag conjugated to an antibody against p63 proteins, demonstrating the selective abundance of p63 only in the basal cells (b), of the epithelium (e), stroma (s) and non-basal epithelial cells of prostatic gland; (l). 2C shows the non-specific binding of the antibody- conjugated nanoparticles, caused by centrifugation steps. 2D, labeling of p63-proteins and PSA (2F) with nanoparticles, which were prepared in reaction/separation chamber. Negative control experiments in immuno-SERS microscopy using SERS nanotags conjugated to BSA (2E) [9, 13].